|| Pre-School Education Approaches
There are many programmes formulated in various countries in line with different mentalities and used today in kindergarten education. Each programme has a different education mentality, teacher education system, material selection and class organization. Schools materialize education practices by selecting one or more of these programmes.
High/Scope education approach is a developmental framework that brings the thought of exposing all students to meaningful and realistic educational experiences to the forefront. It is an education system for pre-school and primary education based on scientific research. Primary principle of High/Scope is effective learning. 'Effective learning', learning environment, daily programme, content, adult-child relationship and evaluation are the six inter-related elements of High/Scope primary education approach. Effective learning, which is the primary element of developmental education approaches is in the middle of these six elements and constitutes the basis of the others. In effective learning, the child establishes direct relationship with people, objects, events and ideas. Environmental plan and tools and devices gain importance in High/Scope schools in order to support effective learning. High/Scope classes are divided into various play and interest areas in line with ages and interests of children (for ex. science, maths, books, arts and play zones) and all of the areas are equipped with abundant and various equipments. In High/Scope system, a consistent daily programme is applied and it is ensured that children are able to follow the programme. The daily programme should be balanced in terms of small and big group times and the events started by children and those started by teachers especially in kindergarten. The most important event of the daily programme is the time of "plan-do-remember." This process where each child plans what he/she will do, does it and then shares his/her experiences with his/her friends and teachers is a highly important hour where teacher watches improvement of his/her students in terms of evaluation and planning.
Many scientists from different disciplines contributed to Reggio Emilia approach. The most significant ones among these are Bruno Ciari, John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. These scientists made use of Piaget's cognitive and moral development stages while configuring Reggio Emilia theoreticians approach. Bruno Ciari is the pioneer of the "cooperative learning" movement that started in Italy in 1950s. He stated that schools should allow children to use their energy liberally and that this bore great significance in terms of their development. John Dewey advocated necessity of project-based learning practices in schools and underlined that teaching activities should be active and improving and that children being educated in a democratic environment bears importance in terms of their development in every aspect. Lev Vygotsky highlighted the necessity of an education environment where adults can also participate actively in their children's learning projects and suggested that children can learn in a healthier manner in social environments- for example they can enhance their learning through knowledge of their partner. Basics of Reggio Emilia approach emerged acting on these opinions.
Foundations of Montessori philosophy is the thought that a child carries the person he/she is going to turn into within him/herself. Each child is an individual that has a unique development pattern. A child needs freedom in order to reach his/her physical, intellectual and emotional potential. However, this freedom should be attained through self discipline. According to Montessori approach, a child is not an empty bowl that is to be filled by adults. He/she has the abilities of concentration, long-time focus, will discipline and positive behaviour, enthusiasm about learning and organized thinking, feeling and acting. In Montessoriís educational approach, graduated guidance is targeted through training of five senses of the child. In a Montessori class, "working" with real materials required by each behaviour is at the forefront instead of "play" conception. Children are also responsible for class organization and protection of materials while they are playing (actually studying).
|| Multiple Intelligence Theory
There are eight types of intelligence according to Multiple Intelligence Theory posed by Prof. Dr. Howard Gardner in 1983. Intelligence is not single but it is multiple. Each individual is a mixture of dynamic intelligence. Development of intelligence differs both individually and among people. Each individual has the opportunity to learn and improve multiple intelligences. Each type of intelligence can be used to enhance another. Intensity and analysis of past experiences are measured for beliefs, skills and knowledge in all minds. All kinds of intelligence enable different resources, potential capacities and being a more advanced person. Existence of a single intelligence area is seen very rarely. As our knowledge about multiple intelligence increases, all intelligence lists can change. The principles that should be noted while applying the Multiple Intelligence Theory to education: intelligence can be taught. Every person has strong areas of intelligence. Every person has weak areas of intelligence. Weaknesses can be rendered stronger. Intelligence of a person is unique like his/her fingerprint.
"Project Approach" developed in University of Alberta and University of Illinois is in-depth examination of the subjects which children are interested in under leadership of a teacher and through group work. Selection of the subject is important in project works. If the subject is a realistic one in which students are interested in, on which they can build new information and where they can have rich experiences in their areas of development, this makes the project fun and rich in terms of learning.